Paper examination: a crime lab examination of the torn edges of paper for the purpose of matching it with the paper from which it was torn. A paper examination can also determine if a watermark is present, and if the paper bears indented writing impressions. Indentations not visible to the eye can be brought up using appropriate instruments. Some watermarks provide dating information, indicating the date of manufacture of the paper.
Parabolic microphone: a microphone with a large disk-like attachment used for listening to audio from great distances.
Paraprofessional forger: a criminal who possesses a working knowledge of the systems used by banks in processing checks and who uses planning, guile, and advance preparation to carry out the crime. A paraprofessional forger typically manufactures his or her own checks, establishes a cover business, and is able to present apparently credible identification.
Patent: a grant issued by a national government conferring the right to exclude others from making, using, or selling an invention within that country. Patents may be given for new products or processes. Violations of patent rights are known as infringement or piracy.
PBX: Private Branch Exchange. The telephone network used by an organization to allow a single access number to offer multiple lines to outside callers and to allow internal staff to share a range of external lines.
Pepper spray: a non-lethal chemical spray derived from chili-type peppers, used in riot control, crowd control and personal self-defense. The chemical compound irritates the eyes, causing tears, pain and sometimes temporary blindness. Also called oleoresin capsicum (OC).
Performance appraisal: the ongoing process of setting objectives and assessing individual and collective behavior and achievements during a finite period of time. It is primarily about counseling and feedback on ways to improve performance at an individual and team level, and the quality of work relationships. Performance improvement results from people being clear about priorities and objectives, what skills need to be enhanced, and which types of behavior can help to this end. This comes from open, positive, and constructive discussion between supervisors, individuals, and teams, and agreement on how to focus on doing the job better. In the appraisal process, a manager evaluates, coaches, counsels, and develops subordinates on a continuing basis throughout the reporting period, usually one year.
Personal Security Specialist: an individual, trained to protect another, such as a dignitary, celebrity, business executive, etc. See also personal protection specialist. Also referred to as “bodyguard” but this term is less accepted.
Photovoltaic power source: an array of solar power cells used as an electric generator and battery charge controller.
Physical security: that part of security concerned with physical measures designed to safeguard people; to prevent unauthorized access to equipment, facilities, material, and documents; and to safeguard them against a security incident.
Physical Security Information Management (PSIM): are a new security technology class that combines diverse physical security sensors and devices and completely manages them from a single platform. The basic PSIM software synthesizes data from video, access control systems, and other physical sensors.
Physical security inspection: an on-site evaluation of a facility or part of a facility, conducted to identify security weaknesses and to recommend corrective actions.
Pigeon drop: a scheme committed by a team of con artists in which a wallet or purse containing money is placed so as to be found in the presence of the mark (intended victim) and one of the con artists. The mark is induced to agree to share the found money but to first place it and a sum of his own money as collateral with a third party (a member of the team) while an effort is made to locate the owner of the found money. The team separates from the mark, depriving him of his money.
Pipe bomb: a short length of pipe capped at both ends and drilled at one end to accept a fuse, which is used to detonate an explosive contained inside the pipe.
Pleasure-pain principle: the utilitarian concept that people endeavor to maximize pleasure (profit) and minimize pain (loss). Making the anticipated penalty greater than the expected gain is believed to deter rational men from committing crimes.
Product diversion: There is not necessarily anything illegal about diversion. The term simply refers to merchandise that has somehow shifted from the intended distribution channel. The practice, which advocates describe as a form of arbitrage, takes advantage of price differences — either by geographic region or between customers who are sold differently priced products at different times.
Politically Exposed Person (PEP): is a term that describes a person who may be or recently acted in the political arena of a country or has held a position in the recent past. Such an individual must be tracked by financial institutions as they pose potential reputational risk to regulated entities.
PEPs are viewed as high risk in today’s banking and regulatory environments. Enhanced due diligence and rigid ‘Know Your Customer’ (KYC) policies are key to mitigating the risks presented by a PEP client, whether it be in the financial or insurance sector. Hefty fines have been levied on banks that have taken PEP clients on board but failed to carry out enhanced due diligence or KYC policies. Reputational damage is another risk for financial institutions that, either unknowingly or through weak controls, end up doing business with PEPs whose sources of funds are illicit.
Polycarbonate glazing products: lightweight, tempered plastics approximately 30 times stronger than acrylics, with superior resistance to impact and shattering.
Ponzi operation: a confidence scheme in which money is collected from investors and part of it is paid back with high profits to encourage the early investors and others to increase their investments. When the total amount becomes substantial, the swindlers abscond with the investments. This form of fraud is similar to the pyramid sales scheme in which investors purchase distributorships and rights to sell lower-level distributorships. The scheme collapses when there are no more investors willing to buy in.
Power elite: a closely connected group of the corporate rich, political leaders, and military commanders who are presumed by some to decide most key social and political issues.
Pre-employment screening: a process for determining whether a prospective employee is trustworthy or capable of performing the functions required by the job.
Present cost of a security measure: the immediate cost to purchase or develop the security measure plus the present cost of future maintenance and operating costs, less the present value of any future scrap value the security measure may have.
Prevention: plans and processes that will allow an organization to avoid, preclude, or limit the impact of a crisis occurring. The tasks of prevention should include compliance with corporate policy, mitigation strategies, and behavior and programs to support avoidance and deterrence and detection.
Principal: a person for whom personal protective services are provided; a chief actor in a crime; an aider and abettor who actually or constructively participates in the commission of a crime, as distinguished from an accessory.
Profit center: an element or unit within a business organization where expenses and revenue are recorded and the net difference calculated as profit or loss. A profit center is typically a large segment of the organization and may comprise a cluster of operating activities.
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT): a planning and control process that requires identifying the accomplishments of programs and the time and resources needed to go from one accomplishment to the next. It is an approach to planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling the work efforts required to achieve the goals of a project of finite duration. PERT can help identify and correct problems that arise during a project. The chief value of the technique is the information that it generates concerning a project’s current status. The project manager uses the generated information in exercising control of project activities.
Proprietary Information: valuable information, owned by a company or entrusted to it, which has not been disclosed publicly; specifically, information that is not readily accessible to others, that was created or collected by the owner at considerable cost, and that the owner seeks to keep confidential.
Protected executive: a person whose position in an organization exposes him or her to physical risk such as assassination, kidnap, or extortion. The protection afforded is typically provided by a dedicated protective unit which functions according to procedures enunciated in a crisis management plan that has been approved by a senior decision making body such as a board of directors.
Protection-in-depth: the strategy of forming layers of protection for an asset.