Global Security Glossary – L –

L

Laminated safety glass: glass consisting of two layers of plate bonded with a plastic interlayer. When smashed, glass pieces tend to remain connected to the interlayer reducing the hazard of flying glass.

Lapping: an embezzlement technique in which a payment on account is diverted to the embezzler’s use. To cover the shortage, a succeeding receipt is credited to the shorted account.

Lateral thinking: refers to a means of escaping from habitual mind patterns (or logical sequential thinking) in order to solve problems or explore new ideas. Techniques include deliberate and provocative challenging of preconceptions, and rejection of yes/no thinking.

Lean Security:  security management methodology in the context of Lean Manufacturing or Lean Production — a set of principles for improving product quality while lowering cost and production time. The term Lean Manufacturing evolved from the Toyota Production System (TPS), which is an adaptation of Total Quality Management (TQM), continuous process improvement, or Kaizen, and a number of other principles focused at reducing costs, improving quality, reduction of rework and speeding up cycle.

The Lean Management System

The lean management system consists of only a few principal elements that are interdependent. That means all of the elements have to be present for the system to work.

The four elements are:

  1. Leader standard work;
  2. Visual controls;
  3. Daily accountability process; and
  4. Leadership discipline.

Proponents of lean security assert it encompasses the following range:

  • Applying lean principles to the security (service) function;
  • Use of information from other applications of lean (such as Lean Manufacturing or Lean Office) in support of the security function; and
  • Use of security resources to support lean elsewhere in the organization.

Lean Security has applicability throughout the enterprise security function, from top to bottom. It focuses on applying lean to specific aspects of security operations, such as security operations at the site level, or within supply chain operations. This can be done independently of the rest of the security function.

Letter of Credit (LC): Originally, a Letter of Credit (LC) was quite literally that – a letter addressed by the buyer’s bank to the seller’s bank stating that they could vouch for their good customer, the buyer, and that they would pay the seller in case of the buyer’s default. Nowadays, LC’s are formatted to provide fill-in spaces for the various documentary requirements of international or domestic business.  An LC is issued by a bank on behalf of one of it’s creditworthy customers, whose application for the credit has been approved by that bank.

Lie detector: a name generally given to describe the polygraph instrument. The term is also loosely applied to the voice stress analyzer and psychological stress analyzer, which are not polygraph instruments.

Life cycle theory: a concept of leadership which holds that the appropriate management style for a particular situation should be primarily dependent upon the maturity level of the employee. Maturity is defined as a function of the employee’s general level of education, experience, motivation, desire to work, and willingness to accept responsibility.

Loss event: an occurrence that produces a financial loss or negative impact on assets. Examples include security incidents, crimes, war, natural hazards, or disasters.

Loss event criticality – the impact upon an organization imposed by a single loss event or the cumulative impact of losses resulting from recurrence of the same event.

Loss event profile: a listing of the kinds of threats or risks confronting a particular asset or organization.

Luminaire: a device or fixture containing a light source and means for directing and controlling the distribution of light from the source.

Luminaire efficiency: the percentage of lamp lumens which are contained in the beam.

Luminance: the amount of light emitted from a surface, whether from a direct source or reflected. Luminance is not relative to distance, being a property of the object viewed. It is expressed in footlamberts.

Luminous efficiency: a measure of the efficiency of a light source. It describes how much visible energy is produced per watt of power input, and is measured in lumens per watt. Also called efficacy of light source.

Lux: a metric unit of measurement for light; one lux equals one lumen per square meter.

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