Illegal oil bunkering: a euphemism for oil theft has become a wide spread practice in the Niger Delta. Since these activities are not accompanied by the usual safety measures for oil production, dramatic accidents happen with consequences such as the loss of many lives and full-scale blowouts.
Impact analysis: process of analyzing all operational functions and the effect that an operational interruption might have upon them. Note: Impact analysis includes Business Impact Analysis – the identification of critical business assets, functions, processes, and resources as well as an evaluation of the potential damage or loss that may be caused to the organization resulting from a disruption (or a change in the business or operating environment). Impact analysis identifies: 1) how the loss or damage will manifest itself; 2) how that degree for potential escalation of damage or loss with time following an Incident; 3) the minimum services and resources (human, physical, and financial) needed to enable business processes to continue to operate at a minimum acceptable level; and 4) the timeframe and extent within which activities, functions, and services of the organization should be recovered.
IMO: International Maritime Organization. A UN agency that has drawn up security rules for shipping, the ISPS Code
Incident Causation Model (ICM): an approach for identifying the causal factors of a serious security incident or safety accident. The model is designed to force a careful examination of each related circumstance and identify what needs to be done to prevent recurrence. The model can be used to examine actual and potential loss-producing incidents.
Inductive reasoning: a method of reasoning which starts out from specific cases, analyzes them, and reaches conclusions on the basis of the observations; an investigative process in which the investigator develops from observed facts a generalization explaining the relationships between the events under examination. The process moves by logical steps from the particular to the general.
Infinity transmitter device: a device which allows a room conversation to be monitored by a remotely activated microphone on a telephone line.
ISO: International Organization for Standardization. Develops standards for ways in which the work and management of company processes linked to security should proceed
ISO 28000:2007: specifies the requirements for a security management system, including those aspects critical to security assurance of the supply chain. Security management is linked to many other aspects of business management. Aspects include all activities controlled or influenced by organizations that impact on supply chain security. These other aspects should be considered directly, where and when they have an impact on security management, including transporting these goods along the supply chain. it is applicable to all sizes of organizations, from small to multinational, in manufacturing, service, storage or transportation at any stage of the production or supply chain.
ISPS: International Ship and Port Facility Security Code. ISPS-Code. International rules for shipping drawn up by the IMO which contain both mandatory legislation and recommendations
Ink analysis: crime lab analysis to determine if the ink of two or more different writings is the same or different formulation. The same analysis can be conducted with an ink writing and a suspect pen. The examinations do not identify a specific pen, only that the inks are the same formulation. Ink dating examinations can also show the earliest date a particular ink was produced.
Intangible assets: includes such things as reputation, customer confidence, client confidence, trade secrets, intellectual property, and goodwill.
Intellectual capital – knowledge assets that a company owns, including information in databases as well knowledge possessed by individual employees.
Intellectual property rights (IPR): a category of intangible rights protecting commercially valuable products of the human intellect. The category comprises primarily trademark, copyright, and patent rights, but also includes trade secret rights, publicity rights, moral rights, and rights against unfair competition. (Note: Some areas of the world differ significantly in their recognition and enforcement of patents, trademarks, copyrights, and other IPR. It is important to understand the IPR climate and the ability of the legal safeguards that are applicable in each jurisdiction where there is a necessity to support your business requirements.)
Internal audit: systematic, independent, and documented process for obtaining audit evidence and evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which the management system audit criteria set by the organization are fulfilled. Note: In many cases, particularly in smaller organizations, independence can be demonstrated by the freedom from responsibility for the activity being audited.
The cross-border trading of currencies from one market to another for profit. Currency trading is very risky, just like the stock market. Currency values change on a daily basis, and their worth fluctuates from country to country. For instance, I may be able to purchase 5 French Francs for one Dollar today, and tomorrow sell those five Francs for $1.02, or exchange them for Rands, the Rands for Pounds, the Pounds for Australian Dollars, the Aussie Dollars for Yen, the Yen for US Dollars, and make $1.05. Or ending up owning my margin account $10.00.
Forex is not for amateurs. Let me give you an example of the variables a Currency Trader needs to understand. Currency fluctuates with the times. It is affected by politics, war, strife, feast and famine, drought and floods, crop yields, international relations and relationships. A Currency Trader must keep abreast of the news on a minute to minute basis, and must have a full understanding of leverage, exchange rates, and the hourly movement of funds from one account to another and one market to another.
The scam is pretty basic. It consists of persuading someone that he or she can make huge profits by joining an investment club that uses forex markets to make money, or by sending away for secret information based on “currency market flaws” that enable huge profits to be made in forex. Either way, the investment is gone. Before investing in any forex pool, it is very important to fully and independently investigate the traders, their licenses, and their track record.
International law: law derived from treaties, decisions of supranational courts (such as the Permanent Court for International Justice), and the charters of the League of Nations and the United Nations. International law includes legal precedents and procedures governing multinational corporations, import-export trade, and disputes between nations. In a limited sense, international law governs the conduct of a sovereign nation in matters not entirely internal.
Interpol: an international law enforcement organization consisting of 138 member countries. Interpol, headquartered in Saint Cloud, France, enables communication among law enforcement organizations and provides assistance in both domestic and foreign criminal investigative matters. In each member country, a point of contact and coordination is established within some component of the national police in the capital city. The designated entity is known as the National Central Bureau (NCB).
Intrusion detection: the act of discovering an attempt (successful or unsuccessful) to breach a secured perimeter (such as scaling a fence, opening a locked window, or entering an area without authorization).