Global Security Glossary – H –

H

 

Hacker: the name originally given to a person who took pleasure by learning the details of programming systems in a non-destructive manner. When such activities become destructive, the term becomes cracker, i.e., someone who cracks or cracks into a protected computer system.

Horizontal organization: is one that seeks to reduce the number of layers of management and facilitate the development of a flatter, more responsive and productive organization. Teams are allocated to, and made responsible for, specific business processes. This ensures that decisions are made more quickly and in a manner more consistent with business objectives. The technique is particularly useful in multinational organizations, because it helps to link disparate and geographically dispersed operations

Hallucinogens: a major classification of natural and synthetic drugs whose primary effect is to distort the senses, and cause hallucinations.

Halo: a dark area surrounding and unusually bright object cause by overloading of the camera imager. Reflection of light from a bright object may cause this effect.

Harmonic bug: an audio amplifier and microphone connected to a telephone line through a tone-sensitive relay that is activated by telephoning the bugged premises and sounding the coded tone.

Hashish: the resinous secretions of the cannabis plant, which are collected, dried, and then compressed into a variety of forms, such as balls, cakes, or cookie-like sheets. It contains a higher concentration of THC (up to 14 percent) than marijuana, and has a heavy marijuana odor when burned. It is often smoked in water pipes, which regulate and cool the smoke, or sprinkled on joints or tobacco cigarettes. In India, hashish is known as charas.

Hazard analysis: a process for determining loss exposure and loss potential by comparing loss history against applicable standards.

Hazard control: a means of reducing the risk due to exposure to a hazard. Such means may include: ergonomic designing of work stations and equipment; arranging, safety-guarding and interlocking of equipment; barricading of pedestrian and vehicular traffic routes; controlling exposure to toxic materials; wearing protective gear; and using hazard annunciators.

Herzberg theory: a management theory which holds that employees are motivated by feelings of achievement, the work itself, responsibility, advancement, and personal growth.

Hidden agenda: unannounced or unconscious goals, personal needs, expectations, and strategies that an individual brings with his or her participation in a group.

Hierarchy of needs: a management theory which holds that humans share certain needs, which when satisfied, no longer motivate. From lowest to highest, the needs are: (1) basic physiological survival (food, water, shelter, etc), (2) security against danger, (3) social esteem, (4) independence, and (5) self-actualization.

Hijacking: taking control of a vehicle by the use or threatened use of force or by intimidation; taking a vehicle by stealth, without the use or threatened use of force, in order to steal its cargo.

Homemade napalm: an improvised incendiary comprised of gasoline in combination with soap, lye, castor oil, blood, or salt.

Hot line: a dedicated communication circuit; a telephone line used exclusively for transmitting emergency messages.

Household burglary: the unlawful entry or forcible entry or attempted forcible entry of a residence, usually, but not necessarily, attended by theft.

Household larceny: the theft or attempted theft of money or property from a residence or its immediate vicinity.

Hue and cry: a method of policing in early England. It was a call to action requiring all citizens to participate in the capture of an offender.

Hysteria: an emotional disturbance characterized by a lack of control over one’s emotions; a state of tension or excitement in which there is a temporary loss of control over the emotions.

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