Global Security Glossary – D –

D

 

Dashboard: is Visualization tool that provides graphical depictions of current key performance indicators in order to enable faster response to changes in areas such as sales, customer relations, performance assessments, and inventory levels.

Data mining: is the systematic computer Analysis, through the use of statistical techniques (often employing Neural networks), of large volumes of collected Data with the aim of revealing previously unidentified patterns, trends, and relationships about customers, products, services, and other activities that can lead to new and profitable business opportunities.

Defense in depth: The practice of layering defenses or placing multiple barriers between an organization’s critical assets and a disruption to provide added protection.

Data above voice line: a voice-grade telephone line that simultaneously carries alarm data and voice communications. The term derives from the fact that alarm data can be transmitted on a line of this type in a non-interfering way at a frequency above that of voice communications. This is sometimes called piggybacked communications.

Data mining: use of automated tools to extract information from a data warehouse and process it.

Deadbolt – a bolt which requires a deliberate action to extend and which resists end pressure in the unlocking direction when fully extended.

Decision tree: a graphic method of presenting various decisional alternatives so that the risks, information needs, and courses of action are visually available to the decision-maker. The alternatives are displayed in the form of a tree with nodes and branches. Each branch represents an alternative course of action or decision, leading to a node which represents an event. Thus, a decision tree shows both the courses of action available as well as their possible outcomes.

Deductive reasoning: a logical analysis based on facts from which a conclusion may be made; the deriving of a conclusion from reasoning; a process in which a deduction follows from the premises; the reasoning which starts out from an assumption or premise and proceeds by logical steps to deduce a solution to the problem or question.

Defamation: a statement made orally or in writing which injures a person’s reputation in the community; that which tends to injure the reputation of a living person or the memory of a deceased person and to expose him to public hatred, disgrace, ridicule, or contempt, or to exclude him from society; intentional causing or attempting to cause damage to the reputation of another by communicating false or distorted information about his actions, motives, or character.

Demonstrative evidence: an exhibit offered at a trial as a means of explaining or illustrating, such as diagrams, maps, plaster casts, models, and charts.

Design basis threat (DBT): the adversary against which the utility must be protected. Determining the DBT requires consideration of the threat type, tactics, mode of operations, capabilities, threat level, and likelihood of occurrence.

Deterrence theory: the penological theory that the use or threat of legal sanctions or punishment, the knowledge of which is widely disseminated, is the most important method of preventing crime or socially undesirable acts which might otherwise be committed. Classical deterrence theory maintains that the likelihood of someone engaging in lawbreaking activity is determined negatively by the certainty, severity, and swiftness of punishment. The more certain, severe, and swift the penalties are, the greater their deterrent effect.

Deviant Globalization: describes aspects of transnational integration that mainstream discussions of economic and cultural globalization rarely address—topics such as the international organ trade, the global sex industry, pandemics, smuggling networks, transnational gangs, and failed states.

A new class of global actors is playing an increasingly important role in globalization: smugglers, warlords, guerrillas, terrorists, gangs, and bandits of all stripes. Since the end of the Cold War, the global illicit economy has consistently grown at twice the rate of the licit global economy. Increasingly, illicit actors will represent not just an economic but a political force. As globalization hollows out traditional nation-states, what will fill the power vacuum in slums and hinterlands will be informal non-state governance structures. These zones will be globally connected, effectively run by local gangs, religious leaders, or quasi-tribal organizations – organizations that will govern without aspiring to statehood.

Differential association theory: a major theory in American criminology which postulates that criminal behavior, like normative behavior, is learned; that this learning takes place in association with others already committed to criminality; and that one learns in such association both criminal values and the mechanisms for committing crimes.

Direct evidence: that means of proof which tends to show the existence of a fact in question, without the intervention of the proof of any other fact, and is distinguished from circumstantial evidence, which is often called indirect.

Disaster preparedness: any series of actions intended to control and manage major incidents and bring them to the most satisfactory conclusion possible.

Disaster recovery: immediate intervention taken by an organization to minimize further losses brought on by a disaster and to begin the process of recovery, including activities and programs designed to restore critical business functions and return the organization to an acceptable condition.

Disinformation: the spreading of false propaganda and the use of forged documents to create political unrest or scandals.

Double bagging: a technique in which the thief places one shopping bag inside the other with relatively thin merchandise items concealed between the inner and outer bags. In a variation of this technique the thief will line the inside of the bag with tin foil or place the foil between the outer and inner bags. The foil will defeat sensors placed at store exit points to detect the sensitized tags attached to merchandise.

Double-keying: a procedure requiring that two persons, each with a separate and different key, open locks that grant access to a sensitive item or location.

Due diligence: a measure of prudence or activity that is to be expected from a reasonable and prudent person under the particular circumstances; not measured by an absolute standard, but dependent upon circumstances of a particular case.  See also due diligence in finance.

Duress code: a special code that reports an ambush, duress, or emergency situation. The code can be given verbally, for example, as part of what would appear to be a routine conversation, or entered on a digital keypad during what would appear to be a routine disarming sequence or call-in.

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